I thought I posted this one, I guess not.
Inhibition of thrombin, an unexplored function of retinoic acid
Published online 2019
Amongst vitamin A and its derivatives, retinoic acid showed the highest inhibition of both the forms of thrombin. Vitamin A and its derivatives also displayed remarkable inhibition of platelet aggregation. This is the first report of vitamin A and its derivatives showing inhibition of thrombin and platelet aggregation in vitro .
The present study opens a window to understand blood coagulation in animals by highlighting the thrombin inhibitory activity of retinoic acid and this further helps us to decipher some key aspects of the process of atherosclerosis.
Inhibition of thrombin and platelet aggregation is an important aspect while considering a therapeutic solution to inhibit blood clotting as a preventive measure in case of medical conditions such as cardiovascular disease, stroke and deep vein thrombosis. Anti-platelet drugs such as aspirin, ticlopidine and clopidogrel are administered in case of arterial thrombotic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and stroke; while anti-thrombin drugs such as heparin, argatroban and hirudin are administered in case of both arterial and venous thrombotic conditions. In the case of venous thrombotic conditions, anti-thrombin drugs are very crucial to prevent clotting and therefore, in the pursuit of novel anti-thrombin drugs, the work presented opens a window on the inhibition of thrombin by naturally-occurring vitamin A. The future pursuit in this direction is to perform experiments to examine the in vivo effects of vitamin A and its derivatives in inhibition of thrombosis, wherein direct thrombin inhibition by vitamin A and its derivatives can be expected to occur in vivo . If vitamin A and its derivatives show promising results towards anti-thrombosis, then, these molecules will be one of the most potent prospective drugs. The work presented in this manuscript also opens up opportunities for researchers to perform experiments on the inhibition of thrombin and platelet aggregation by retinoid molecules from natural sources such as trisporic acid , isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid), alitretinoin (9-cis-retinoic acid), etretinate, adapalene etc.